BC3. Basque centre for climate change – Klima aldaketa ikergai

Basque Centre for Climate Change

We integrate the environmental, socioeconomic and ethical dimensions of climate change.

We provide knowledge, tools, new methodologies that we lead towards action in a collaborative framework.

We produce multi and trans-disciplinary knowledge relevant to decision making towards sustainable development at international level.   



To steer climate change science towards the co-production of new knowledge and the co-design of policy solutions together with other stakeholders through a solid and transdisciplinary approach, with the ultimate goal to achieve sustainable development.


BC3 mission is to strategically foster co-production of knowledge relevant to decision making by integrating environmental, socioeconomic, and ethical dimensions of climate change.

Overall Objectives


Entrevista a Mª José Sanz, directora de BC3, en la cadena SER sobre el ciclo de conferencias Agora K2050, en la que participará en el análisis y reflexión sobre el calentamiento global.
  25 April 2018

Entrevista a David Moreno investigador de Ikerbasque y BC3, en el programa La mecánica del Caracol (Radio Euskadi), sobre la restauración y recuperación de los ecosistemas terrestres
  25 April 2018

Journal Article “Restoration and repair of Earth’s damaged ecosystems”
  25 April 2018

BC3 researcher Sérgio H. Faria joins the IPCC expert group to prepare the Sixth Evaluation Report
  23 April 2018

“ Plataforma adapteca del CC en España y la revista Agro Digital” publican la elección de Sergio Faria, investigador de BC3, como uno de los 14 miembros nominados por España para participar en el Sexto Informe de Evaluación del IPCC.
  18 April 2018

Ikerbasque reasearcher in BC3, Unai Pascual, one of the international experts who approved the IPBES biodiversity report, at a major UN conference for Biodiversity later this year
  12 April 2018

“Diario Vasco” publica la entrevista del investigador del BC3 Luis María Abadie sobre los riesgos a los que se enfrentarán las ciudades por la subida del nivel del mar.
  26 March 2018

BC3 selects the centre that are going to take part in the 9th edition of “Training Caravan-Ikertzaileak Gelan”
  22 March 2018

BC3 Journal Article: From principles to practice in paying for nature’s services
  19 March 2018

“SINC La ciencia es noticia” publica el artículo en el que participa el investigador de BC3 Luis Maria Abadie sobre las Megaciudades en alto riesgo por el cambio climático
  19 March 2018

Social Media


BC3-Basque Centre for Climate Change seeks to address a highly-qualified team of researchers, launching calls for senior and junior positions in our Job Offers and offering research opportunities for young students through Internships.

Journal Articles

Abadie, L.M. 2018. Sea level damage risk with probabilistic weighting of IPCC scenarios: An application to major coastal cities. Journal of Cleaner Production. 175. 582–598. DOI (10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.069).

Asma Jebari, Agustin del Prado, Guillermo Pardo. 2018. Modeling Regional Effects of Climate Change on Soil Organic Carbon in Spain. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY. DOI (10.2134/jeq2017.07.0294).

Cazcarro, I., Arto, I., Hazra, S., Bhattacharya, R.N., Osei-Wusu Adjei, P., Ofori-Danson, P.K., Asenso, J.K., Amponsah, S.K., Khondker, B., Raihan, S., Hossen, Z. 2018. Biophysical and Socioeconomic State and Links of Deltaic Areas Vulnerable to Climate Change: Volta (Ghana), Mahanadi (India) and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh). Sustainability. DOI (10.3390/su10030893).

Díaz,S., U. Pascual, M. Stenseke,B. Martín-López,R.T. Watson,Z. Molnár,R. Hill,K.M.A. Chan,I.A. Baste,K.A. Brauman,S. Polasky,A. Church,M. Lonsdale,A. Larigauderie,P.W. Leadley,A.P.E. Van Oudenhoven,F. Van Der Plaat,M. Schröter,S. Lavorel,Y. Aumeeruddy-Th. 2018. Assessing nature’s contributions to people. Science. 359. (6373) 270-272. DOI (10.1126/science.aap8826 ).

Dobbie, S., Schreckenberg, K., Dyke, J., Schaafsma, M., & Balbi, S. . 2018. Agent-based modelling to assess community food security and sustainable livelihoods. JASSS-THE JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL SOCIETIES AND SOCIAL SIMULATION. DOI (10.18564/jasss.3639).

Galarraga, Ibon; Sainz de Murieta, Elisa; Markandya, Anil; Abadie, Luis . 2018. Addendum to 'Understanding risks in the light of uncertainty: low-probability, high-impact coastal events in cities. Environmental Research Letters. DOI (10.1088/1748-9326/aaa513).

Ignacio Palomo. 2018. Test climate targets using fragile ecosystems. NATURE. 553. (155) DOI (10.1038/d41586-018-00402-0).

Ignacio Palomo, Louise Willemen, Evangelia Drakou, Benjamin Burkhard, Neville Crossman, Chloe Bellamy, Kremena Burkhard, C Sylvie Campagne, Anuja Dangol, Jonas Franke, Sylwia Kulczyk, Solen Le Clec'h, Dania Abdul Malak, Lorena Muñoz, Vytautas Narusevicius. 2018. Practical solutions for bottlenecks in ecosystem services mapping. One Ecosystem. DOI (10.3897/oneeco.3.e201713).

Johannes Langemeyer, Ignacio Palomo, Sergio Baraibar, Erik Gómez Baggethun. 2018. Participatory multi-criteria decision aid: Operationalizing an integrated assessment of ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services. DOI (10.1016/j.ecoser.2018.01.012).

Laetitia Pettinotti, Amaia de Ayala and Elena Ojea. 2018. Benefits from water related ecosystem services in Africa and climate change. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS. DOI (10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.03.021).


Sérgio H. Faria, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Anja Lambrecht. 2018. The EPICA-DML Deep Ice Core. A Visual Record. Berlin. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 978-3-662-55306-0.

M.J. Sanz, J. de Vente, J.-L. Chotte, M. Bernoux, G. Kust, I. Ruiz, M. Almagro, J.-A. Alloza, R. Vallejo, V. Castillo, A. Hebel, and M. Akhtar-Schuster. 2017. Sustainable Land Management contribution to successful land-based climate change adaptation and mitigation. A Report of the Science-Policy Interface. Bonn, Germany. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). 178. ISBN 978-92-95110-96-0 .

Nunes, P., Markandya, A., Svensson, L. . 2017. Handbook on the Economics and Management of Sustainable Oceans. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 9781786430717.

Markandya, A., Galarraga, I. and Rübbelke, D. 2016. Climate Finance: Theory and Practice. Singapore. World Scientific Series on the Economics of Climate Change. 300. ISBN 978-981-4641-80-7.

Ravera, F., I. Iniesta-Arandia, B. Martín-López, U. Pascual, and P. Bose . 2016. Gender perspectives in resilience, vulnerability and adaptation to global environmental change. Special Issue AMBIO. Netherlands. Springer. ISBN 10.1007/s13280-016-0842-1.

Sanz, M.j. et all. 2016. Forestry for a low-carbon future.Integrating forest and Wood products in climate change strategies. Rome. FAO. 180. ISBN 978-92-5-109312-2.

Ansuategi, A., Delgado, J and Galarraga, I. . 2015. Green Energy and Efficiency. 1st ed. Switzerland. Springer. 428. ISBN 978-3-319-03631-1.

Arto, I., Kratena, K., Amores, A.F., Temurshoev, U., Streicher, G. 2015. Market-based instruments to reduce air emissions from household heating appliances. Analysis of scrappage policy scenarios. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. ISBN 978-92-79-50850-9.

Arto, I., Rueda-Cantuche, J.M., Amores, A.F., Dietzenbacher, E., Sousa, N., Montinari, L., Markandya, A. 2015. EU Exports: Employment and Income (1995-2011). 1st ed. Luxembourg. European Commission. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. 304. ISBN 978-92-79-44581-1.

Chiabai A. 2015. Climate Change Impacts on Tropical Forests in Central America: An Ecosystem Service Perspective. 1st ed. Abingdon, Oxon, UK. Routledge (Verlag). 224. ISBN 978-0-415-72080-9.

Books chapters

Abadie, L.M., Sainz de Murieta, E., Galarraga, I., Markandya, A. 2017. (Forthcoming). Progressive adaptation strategies in European coastal cities: a response to flood-risk under uncertainty. Handbook on the Economics of Climate Change. Edward Elgar Press.

Anil Markandya, Valeria Costantini, Giorgia Sforna, Elena Paglialunga. 2017. Global and Regional Economic Damages from Climate Change. Oxford Encyclopaedia of Environmental Science. Oxford University Press.

Bosello, Francesco; Iglesias, Ana; Termansen, M; Jeuken, Ad; De Cian, Enrica; Chiabai, Aline; Garrote, Luis . 2017. (Forthcoming). Economy wide impacts of climate mitigation and adaptation strategies across European regions . Adapting to Climate Change in Europe: Exploring Sustainable Pathways - From Local Measures to Wider Policies. Elsevier.

Bouwer, Laurens; Capriolo, Alessio; Chiabai, Aline; Foudi, Sebastien; Garrote, Luis; Harmá?ková, Zuzana Veronika; Iglesias, Ana; Jeuken, Ad; Olazabal, Marta; Spadaro, Joseph V.; Taylor, Tim; Zandersen, Marianne . 2017. (Forthcoming). Upscaling the impacts of climate change in different sectors. Adapting to Climate Change in Europe: Exploring Sustainable Pathways - From Local Measures to Wider Policies. Elsevier.

Drakou, E., Willemen,L., Crossman,N.D., Burkhard,B., Palomo,I., Maes,J., Conti, M. 2017. The ecosystem services partnership visualisation tool. Mapping Ecosystem Services. . Pensoft Publishers. 376. ISBN 9789546428295.

Fagerholm, Nora ;Palomo, Ignacio. 2017. Participatory GIS Approaches For Mapping Ecosystem Services. Mapping Ecosystem Services. . Pensoft Publishers. ISBN 978-9546428523.

Galarraga, I., Sainz de Murieta, E. and França, J. 2017. Climate Policy at the sub-national level. Trends in Climate Change Legislation. Edward Elgar.

Markandya, A. 2017. Energy Policies in China and the EU. Energy Governance, Institutions and Policies in China and the EU: A Comparative Assessment. Milan. FEEM Press. ISBN 9788894170146.

Ojea, E., Pascual, M., March, D., Bitetto, I., Meli, P., Breil, M., Claudet, J.,Markandya, A. 2017. Socioeconomic Impacts of Networks of Marine Protected Areas. Management of Marine Protected Areas. Chichester, UK. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 103-124. ISBN 978-1-119-07580-6 978-1-119-07577-6.

Olazabal, M. 2017. Resilience, Sustainability and Transformability of Cities as Complex Adaptive Systems. Urban Regions Now & Tomorrow. 1st ed. Wiesbaden, Germany. Springer. 73-97. ISBN 978-3-658-16758-5.

Others publications

Federici, S., Grassi, G., Harris, N., Lee, D., Neeff, T., Penman, J., Sanz, M.J., and Wolosin, M. 2017. GHG Fluxes from Forests: An assessment of national GHG estimates and independent research in the context of the Paris Agreement.

A.Markandya. 2017. State of Knowledge on Climate Change, Water and Economics. Water Global Practice Discussion Paper,World Bank. 1. 33. DOI (https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/26491).

Antxon Olabe, Mikel González-Eguino, Teresa Ribera. 2017. Hacia un nuevo orden de la energía.

Jon Sampedro, Cristina Pizarro, Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino e Iñaki Arto. 2017. Health co-benefits associated with different transition pathways.

Lee, D. & Sanz, M.J. 2017. UNFCCC Accounting for Forests: What’s in and what’s out of NDCs and REDD+.

Markandya, A. 2017. Improving Irrigation Water Use Efficiency Holds the Key to Tackling Water Scarcity in South Asia: Technical, Potential and Financing Options. 39. 11.

Sanz Sanchez, M.J. et all. 2017. Good Practice Guidance,SDG Indicator 15.3.1,Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area. Edited from a report prepared by Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) for the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).

Anil Markandya, Deger Saygin, Asami Miketa, Dolf Gielen and Nicholas Wagner. 2016. The True Cost of Fossil Fuels: Saving On the Externalities of Air Pollution and Climate Change.

Federici, S., Grassi, G., Harris, N., Lee, D., Neeff, T., Penman, J., Sanz , M.J. and Wollosin, M. 2016. GHG fluxes from forests: An assessment of national reporting and independent science in the context of the Paris Agreement. GFOI (Climate and Land Use Alliance).

Markandya, A. 2016. Cost benefit analysis and the environment: How to best cover impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 101. 41. DOI (10.1787/5jm2f6w8b25l-en).

Working Papers

[2017-04] Cost-effectiveness and incidence of alternative mechanisms for financing renewables Xaquin Garcia-Muros, Christoph Böhringer and Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino

[2017-03] Traveling for happiness, moving to adapt: An agent-based perspective on population mobility Stefano Balbi

[2017-02] Drivers of climate change opinion Itxaso Ruiz, Sérgio Henrique Faria and Marc B. Neumann

[2017-01] Towards successful adaptation: a checklist for the development of climate change adaptation plans Marta Olazabal, Ibon Galarraga, James Ford, Alexandra Lesnikowski and Elisa Sainz de Murieta

[2016-05] The geographic distribution of the economic impact of climate finance María Victoria Román, Iñaki Arto and Alberto Ansuategi

[2016-04] Beyond Ecosystem Services: A Food Security Perspective Stefano Balbi and Ferdinando Villa

[2016-03] The role of flexible biofuel policies in meeting biofuel mandates Anil Markandya, Kishore Dhavala and Alessandro Palma

[2016-02] Industrial and terrestrial carbon leakage under climate policy fragmentation Mikel González-Eguino, Iñigo Capellán-Pérez, Iñaki Arto, Alberto Ansuategi and Anil Markandya

[2016-01] What determines the magnitude of the economic impact of climate finance in recipient countries? A structural decomposition of value-added creation between countries. María Victoria Román, Iñaki Arto and Alberto Ansuategi

[2015-04] US climate policy: a critical assessment of intensity standards Christoph Böhringer , Xaquin Garcia-Muros , Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino and Luis Rey

Policy Briefings

[PB 2017-02_Special Issue] COP23: Technical profile with relevant political support Elisa Sainz de Murieta, Ibon Galarraga and Maria Jose Sanz

[2017-04] Mecanismos para financiar la promoción de energías renovables. Impactos en los hogares y las industrias Joaquin Garcia-Muros y Mikel González-Eguino

[2017-03] The potential of behavioural change for achieving climate change mitigation targets in the European Union Dirk-Jan van de Ven, Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino and Iñaki Arto

[2017-01] How does modern irrigation influence farmers’ vulnerability to external stressors? The case of Itoiz-Canal de Navarra Amaia Albizua and Esteve Cobera

[2016-07] COP22 in Marrakech confirms worldwide commitment to fighting climate change Maria Victoria Román, Maria José Sanz Sanchez and Ibon Galarraga.

[2016-06] Engaging the Public with Science in the Basque Country: On scientists’ experiences and perspectives Maria Loroño and Ibon Galarraga

[2016-05] Climate Change in the Basque Country: Impact on Health and Adaptation measures Pablo Martínez-Juárez, Amaia de Ayala, Sonia Quiroga and Aline Chiabai.

[2016-04] Urban research at BC3: How climate change science can support urban policy making Marta Olazabal, Elisa Sainz de Murieta, Sébastien Foudi, Aline Chiabai, Ibon Galarraga, Stefano Balbi, Leif Vogel, Maria Victoria Román and Anil Markandya

[2016-03] Bridging Science and Policy to Mitigate and Adapt Cities to Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities in the Context of the Basque Declaration Marta Olazabal and Elisa Sainz de Murieta

[2016-02] The past, present and future of the sea level in the Basque Country Elisa Sainz de Murieta

Knowledge Transfer


Our Initiatives


Designed to disseminate and disclose rigorous information on climate change.

Training and Capacity Building

Activities to "bridge knowledge" in terms of scientific advancements.

Science Education and Public Awareness

Raising awareness of Climate Change at Basque Country Scale

BC3 Initiatives in collaboration with external organizations

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