BC3. Basque centre for climate change – Klima aldaketa ikergai

Basque Centre for Climate Change

We integrate the environmental, socioeconomic and ethical dimensions of climate change.

We provide knowledge, tools, new methodologies that we lead towards action in a collaborative framework.

We produce multi and trans-disciplinary knowledge relevant to decision making towards sustainable development at international level.   

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To steer climate change science towards the co-production of new knowledge and the co-design of policy solutions together with other stakeholders through a solid and transdisciplinary approach, with the ultimate goal to achieve sustainable development.


BC3 mission is to strategically foster co-production of knowledge relevant to decision making by integrating environmental, socioeconomic, and ethical dimensions of climate change.

Overall Objectives

Journal Articles

Grassi, G., Schwingshackl, C., Gasser, T., Houghton, R. A., Sitch, S., Canadell, J. G., Cescatti, A., Ciais, P., Federici, S., Friedlingstein, P., Kurz, W. A., Sanz Sanchez, M. J., Abad Viñas, R., Alkama, R., Bultan, S., Ceccherini, G., Falk, S., Kato, E., Kennedy, D., Knauer, J., Korosuo, A., Melo, J., McGrath, M. J., Nabel, J. E. M. S., Poulter, B., Romanovskaya, A. A., Rossi, S., Tian, H., Walker, A. P., Yuan, W., Yue, X., and Pongratz, J. 2023. Harmonising the land-use flux estimates of global models and national inventories for 2000-2020. Earth Syst. Sci. Data. DOI ( https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-15-1093-2023).

Abadie, L.M., Chamorro, J.M. 2023. Investment in wind-based hydrogen production under economic and physical uncertainties. Applied Energy. 337. DOI (10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.120881).

Abadie, L.M., Moral, M.P. 2023. A method for selecting a climate model: an application for maximum daily temperature in Southern Spain. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 152. (1-2) 773-786. DOI (10.1007/s00704-023-04411-6).

Adamo, G., Willis, M. 2023. The Omnipresent Role of Technology in Social-Ecological Systems: Ontological Discussion and Updated Integrated Framework. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. 476 LNBIP. 87-102. DOI (10.1007/978-3-031-33080-3_6).

Alcorta, P., Espinosa, M.P., Pizarro-Irizar, C. 2023. Who bears the risk? Incentives for renewable electricity under strategic interaction between regulator and investors. Resource and Energy Economics. 75. DOI (10.1016/j.reseneeco.2023.101401).

Alonso-Epelde, E., García-Muros, X., González-Eguino, M. 2023. Transport poverty indicators: A new framework based on the household budget survey. Energy Policy. 181. DOI (10.1016/j.enpol.2023.113692).

Arias-Arévalo, P., Lazos-Chavero, E., Monroy-Sais, A.S., Nelson, S.H., Pawlowska-Mainville, A., Vatn, A., Cantú-Fernández, M., Murali, R., Muraca, B., Pascual, U. 2023. The role of power in leveraging the diverse values of nature for transformative change. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 64. DOI (10.1016/j.cosust.2023.101352).

Bakhshianlamouki, E., Augustijn, E.W., Brugnach, M., Voinov, A., Wijnberg, K. 2023. A participatory modelling approach to cognitive mapping of the socio-environmental system of sandy anthropogenic shores in the Netherlands. Ocean and Coastal Management. 243. DOI (10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2023.106739).

Banerjee, O., Cicowiez, M., Malek, Ž., Verburg, P.H., Vargas, R., Goodwin, S., Bagstad, K.J., Murillo, J.Á. 2023. Banking on strong rural livelihoods and the sustainable use of natural capital in post-conflict Colombia. Environment, Development and Sustainability. DOI (10.1007/s10668-023-03740-w).

Barbeta, A., Miralles, D.G., Mendiola, L., Gimeno, T.E., Sabaté, S., Carnicer, J. 2023. Disentangling the Role of Forest Structure and Functional Traits in the Thermal Balance of the Mediterranean–Temperate Ecotone. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 128. (6) DOI (10.1029/2022JG007264).


Anil Markandya and Dirk Rubbelke. 2021 In: Richard Tol. In: Climate and Development. 1 Singapore. World Scientific. 509. ISBN 978-981-124-055-3.

Atmadja, S., Martius, C., Leonard, S. and Sanz Sanchez, M.J. 2021 In: FAO. In: Transformational change to reduce deforestation and climate change impacts A review of definitions, concepts and drivers in scientific and grey literature. ISBN 978-92-5-135167-3.

Arto, I., Rueda Cantuche, J.M., Román, M.V., Cazcarro, I., Amores, A.F., Dietzenbacher, E. 2020 EU Trade in CO2 Emissions. Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-76-18825-4.

Arto, I., Rueda Cantuche, J.M., Román, M.V., Cazcarro, I., Amores, A.F., Dietzenbacher, E. 2020 EU Trade in Value Added. Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-76-18829-2.

Arto, I., Rueda Cantuche, J.M., Román, M.V., Cazcarro, I., Amores, A.F., Dietzenbacher, E. 2020 EU Trade in Employment. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-76-18826-1.

González-Eguino, M.,Sanz Sanchez, M.J. 2020 In: Papeles de Economía Española. In: Transición hacia una economía baja en carbono en España. 163. Madrid. FUNCAS.

Arto, Iñaki., Dietzenbacher, Erik., Rueda Cantuche, Jose. 2019 Measuring bilateral trade in terms of value added. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-76-03846-7.

Buchholz. W., , Markandya,A., Rübbelke,D., Vögele, S. 2019 In: Dodson, J. In: Ancillary Benefits of Climate Policy. 1 Charn, Switzerland. Springer. 345. ISBN 978-3-030-30977-0.

Eduardo Calvo Buendia (Peru), Sabin Guendehou (Benin), Bundit Limmeechokchai (Thailand), Riitta Pipatti (Finland), Yasna Rojas (Chile), Rob Sturgiss (Australia), Kiyoto Tanabe (Japan), Tom Wirth (USA) Daniela Romano (Italy), Jongikhaya Witi (South Africa). 2019 In: Calvo Buendia, E., Tanabe, K., Kranjc, A., Baasansuren, J., Fukuda, M., Ngarize S., Osako, A., Pyrozhenko, Y., Shermanau, P. and Federici, S. In: IPCC (2019) Special Report: "2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories".Overview Chapter. IPCC.

Hongmin Dong (China), James Douglas MacDonald (Canada),Stephen Michael Ogle (USA), Maria José Sanz Sanchez (Spain), Marcelo Theoto Rocha (Brazil). 2019 In: Calvo Buendia, E., Tanabe, K., Kranjc, A., Baasansuren, J., Fukuda, M., Ngarize S., Osako, A., Pyrozhenko, Y., Shermanau, P. and Federici, S. In: IPCC (2019) Special Report: "2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories".Agriculture, Forestry and other land use, Volume 4. IPCC.

Books chapters

Itxaso Ruiz, María José Sanz. 2022 Sustainable Land Management for Rural Adaptation in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Watersheds. In: Springer, Cham. In: Climate Change in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Region . Springer, Cham. ISBN 978-3-030-78565-9.

R. Boyd and A. Markandya. 2021 Costs and Benefits of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation. In: F.J. Warren and N. Lulham. In: Canada in a Changing Climate: National Issues Report. Ottawa. Government of Canada. ISBN 978-0-660-38842-7.

Fernando Valladares, Silvia Matesanz, Oscar Godoy, Teresa Gimeno. 2020 Cambio climático y sistemas naturales/Climate change and natural systems. In: J. M. Cuadrat Prats, M. A. Sánchez, S. M. Vicente Serrano, S. Lanjeri, M. De Luis Arrillaga y J. C. González Hidalgo. In: Clima, sociedad y medio ambiente/Climate, society and environment. Asociación Española de Climatología. ISBN 978-84-1340-183-6.

Gonzalo Delacámara, Timothy G. O’Higgins, Manuel Lago, Simone D. Langhans. 2020 Ecosystem-Based Management: Moving from Concept to Practice . In: Timothy G. O'Higgins, Manuel Lago, Theodore H. DeWitt. In: Ecosystem-Based Management, Ecosystem Services and Aquatic Biodiversity. 1st. Cham, Switzerland. Springer. 580. ISBN 978-3-030-45843-0.

Marta Olazabal. 2020 El Reto Climático en las Ciudades. In: Ministerio de Defensa. In: Las ciudades: agentes críticos para una transformación sostenible del mundo. Ministerio de Defensa. ISBN 978-84-9091-505-9 .

Olazabal, M. 2020 An adaptation agenda for the new climate urbanism: global insights. In: Castán Broto, V., Robin, E., While, A. In: Climate Urbanism: towards a critical research agenda. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-030-53385-4.

Sainz de Murieta, E. 2020 La contribución de las regiones a la política climática. In: EuroBasque - Consejo Vasco del Movimiento Europeo. In: Sostenibilidad en la Europa del S. XXI: económica, ambiental y social. Madrid. Dykinson. 299. ISBN 9788413246680.

Sainz de Murieta, E. 2020 Ancillary Benefits of Adaptation: An Overview. In: Buchholz, W.,Markandya, A., Rübbelke, D.,Vögele, S. In: Ancillary benefits of climate policy. Springer Climate. 181-196. ISBN 978-3-030-30977-0.

A. Markandya and D. Pearce. 2019 Development, the Environment and the Social Rate of Discount. In: G. Atkinson and S. Fankhauser . In: Sustainability Economics: The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics. UK. Edward Elgar: UK. 896. ISBN 978-1-786439109.

Alevgul H. Sorman, Cristina Pizarro-Irizar, Xaquín García-Muros, Mikel González-Eguino, Iñaki Arto. 2019 Spain: On a rollercoaster of regulatory change: risks and uncertainties of renewable energy transitions . In: Alexandros Nikas, Susanne Hanger, Jenny Lieu. In: Case study narratives on risks and uncertainties associated with climate mitigation pathways. London. Routledge. 296. ISBN 9780429458781.

Others publications

Violeta Cabello. 2023. Aprendizaje de un proceso de co-investigación con actores sociales del Mar Menor.

Sanz, M.J, Chiabai A., Batalla I., Baroja E. 2022. El papel del recurso natural del agua en la resistencia a antibióticos desde un enfoque holístico One Health. Ecodes. DOI (https://ecodes.org/hacemos/cultura-para-la-sostenibilidad/salud-y-medioambiente/el-papel-del-recurso-natural-del-agua-en-la-resistencia-a-antibioticos-desde-un-enfoque-holistico-one-health).

GGKP (2021). Markandya, A. & S. Galinato. A methodology for assessing countries’ financial needs to meet the Sustainable Development Goals through natural capital investment. Geneva: Green Growth Knowledge Partnership.

Marquez,A., Balbi,S. and Villa, F. 2021. Scientific modelling can be accessible, interoperable and user friendly: An example for pasture and livestock modelling. BioRxiv. DOI (10.1101/2021.02.23.432363 ).

Pörtner, H.O., Scholes, R.J., Agard, J., Archer, E., Arneth, A., Bai, X., Barnes, D., Burrows, M., Chan, L., Cheung, W.L., Diamond, S., Donatti, C., Duarte, C., Eisenhauer, N., Foden, W., Gasalla, M. A., Handa, C., Hickler, T., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Ichii, K., Jacob, U., Insarov, G., Kiessling, W., Leadley, P., Leemans, R., Levin, L., Lim, M., Maharaj, S., Managi, S., Marquet, P. A., McElwee, P., Midgley, G., Oberdorff, T., Obura, D., Osman, E., Pandit, R., Pascual, U., Pires, A. P. F., Popp, A., Reyes-García, V., Sankaran, M., Settele, J., Shin, Y. J., Sintayehu, D. W., Smith, P., Steiner, N., Strassburg, B., Sukumar, R., Trisos, C., Val, A.L., Wu, J., Aldrian, E., Parmesan, C., Pichs-Madruga, R., Roberts, D.C., Rogers, A.D., Díaz, S., Fischer, M., Hashimoto, S., Lavorel, S., Wu, N., Ngo, H.T. 2021. Scientific outcome of the IPBES-IPCC co-sponsored workshop on biodiversity and climate change; IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany, DOI:10.5281/zenodo.4659158.

Batalla, I., Pardo, G., delPrado, A. 2020. Gases de efecto invernadero y producción caprina: ¿qué debemos tener en cuenta? . Tierras caprino, 30, pp 10-17. 10-17.

IPBES (2020) Workshop Report on Biodiversity and Pandemics of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Daszak, P., das Neves, C., Amuasi, J., Hayman, D., Kuiken, T., Roche, B., Zambrana-Torrelio, C., Buss, P., Dundarova, H., Feferholtz, Y., Foldvari, G., Igbinosa, E., Junglen, S., Liu, Q., Suzan, G., Uhart, M., Wannous, C., Woolaston, K., Mosig Reidl, P., O'Brien, K., Pascual, U., Stoett, P., Li, H., Ngo, H. T., IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany, DOI:10.5281/zenodo.4147317

Espejo, Andres; Federici, Sandro; Green, Carly; Amuchastegui, Naikoa; d'Annunzio, Remi; Balzter, Heiko; Bholanath, Pradeepa; Brack, Cris; Brewer, Charles; Birigazzi, Luca; Cabrera, Edersson; Carter, Sarah; Chand, Narendra; Donoghue, Danny; Eggleston, Simon; Fitzgerald, Nikki; Foody, Giles; Galindo, Gustavo; Goeking, Sara; Grassi, Giacomo; Held, Alex; Herold, Martin; Kleinn, Christoph; Kurz, Werner; Lindquist, Erik; McRoberts, Ronald; Mitchell, Anthea; Næsset, Erik; Notman, Evan; Quegan, Shaun; Rosenqvist, Ake; Roxburgh, Stephen; Sannier, Christophe; Scott, Charles; Stahl, Goran; Stehman, Stephen; Tupua, Viliame; Watt, Pete; Wilson, Sylvia; Woodcock, Curtis; Wulder, Mike. 2020. Integration of remote-sensing and ground-based observations for estimation of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases in forests: Methods and guidance from the Global Forest Observations Initiative, Edition 3.0. Rome, Italy: U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization. 300 p. (M.J. Sanz Coordinating Leading Author)

González-Eguino, M., Arto, I., Rodriguez-Zuñiga,A.,X García-Muros, X. Sampedro,J., Kratena,K., Cazcarro, I., Sorman, A.H.,Pizarro-Irizar,C., Sanz-Sanchez, M.J. 2020. Impacto Económico, de Empleo, Social y sobre la Salud Pública del Borrador Actualizado del Plan Nacional Integrado De Energía y Clima 2021-2030. Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica.

González-Eguino,M.,Arto,I., Rodríguez-Zúñiga,A.,García-Muros, X.,Sampedro, J. 2020. Impacto económico y sobre la salud de la Estrategia de Descarbonización a Largo Plazo 2050 (ELP2050). Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica y el Reto Demográfico.

Working Papers

[2022-02] Memory effect of appliance rebate programme: evidence from a lab experiment María del Mar Solà, Amaia de Ayala, Ibon Galarraga and Marta Escapa

[2022-01] Estimating the price premium of high energy-efficient washing-machines in Spain: A hedonic approach Elena López-Bernabé, Amaia de Ayala and Ibon Galarraga

[2021-03] Effectiveness of monetary information in promoting the purchase of energy-efficient appliances: evidence from a field experiment at a major retailer in María del Mar Solà, Marta Escapa and Ibon Galarraga

[2021-02] Procesos visibles de la transición del hielo superficial con burbujas a hielo profundo con clatratos en el testigo EDML de Antártida Gonzalo Morcillo and Sérgio Henrique Faria

[2021-01] Land use and land cover databases for Mediterranean landscape analysis at the watershed scale João Pompeu, Itxaso Ruiz, Antonio Ruano, Hugo Bendini and María José Sanz

[2020-02] Impact framing and experience for determining acceptable levels of climate change risk: A lab experiment Ambika Markanday, Steffen Kallbekken and Ibon Galarraga

[2020-01] The effect of providing monetary information on energy savings for household appliances: a field trial in Spain María del Mar Solà, Amaia de Ayala, Ibon Galarraga

[2019-01] Revisión sistemática de los efectos del paso a un ordeño al día en pequeños rumiantes Elena Galán del Castillo

[2018-02] Climate Change and Armed Conflicts African Observatory (CACAO): a georeferenced map of Africa Federica Cappelli, Caterina Conigliani, Valeria Costantini, Keti Lelo, Anil Markandya, Elena Paglialunga and Giorgia Sforna

[2018-01] Consumer purchases of energy-efficient cars: behavioural implications for policy Ibon Galarraga, Josu Lucas and Steffen Kallbekken

Policy Briefings

[PB2022-02] Gestión integrada del territorio en la cuenca del río Mijares Itxaso Ruiz, Antonio Ruano, João Pompeu and María J. Sanz

[PB2014/Special Issue-02] Warning to navigators: IPCC report on climate change mitigation Mikel González-Eguino and Iñaki Arto

[PB 2023-03] El agua en la cuenca del río Mijares: lo que aún faltaría por conocer para avanzar en la toma de decisiones y acciones hacia la sostenibilidad territorial Zafra-Calvo N.; Vivas L.D., Ruiz I., Sanz M.J., Brugnach M.

[PB 2023-02] Evaluating adaptation: an analysis of policy progress in coastal cities and regions Marta Olazabal, William Lewis, Kayin Venner, María Ruiz de Gopegui Aramburu, Elisa Sainz de Murieta, Sascha Mahawelatanne Goonesekera, Ibon Galarraga

[PB 2023-01] Monetary information to increase the adoption of energy-efficient options: trick or treat? María del Mar Solà, Amaia de Ayala, Ibon Galarraga, Marta Escapa

[PB 2022-01] El impulso y desarrollo de la ganadería regenerativa como herramienta para la sostenibilidad agroalimentaria Rubén Zulueta, Pablo Manzano y Agustín del Prado

[PB 2021-06] An interoperability strategy for the next generation of SEEA accounting Ferdinando Villa, Stefano Balbi, Alessio Bulckaen

[PB 2021-05] Learning how to learn: The experiences of 6 global cities in tracking urban adaptation William Lewis, Marta Olazabal

[PB 2021-04] Artificial Intelligence technology for rapid natural capital accounting: The ARIES for SEEA explorer Ferdinando Villa, Stefano Balbi, Alessio Bulckaen, Amelia Ochoa

[PB 2021-03] Coastal climate change adaptation in Dakar: participatory approaches for determining decision-making behaviour, risk and adaptation preferences Ambika Markanday, Elisa Sainz de Murieta, Íñigo Aniel-Quiroga, Andrea Briones, Íñigo Losada, Alexandra Toimil and Saúl Torres

Our Initiatives


Designed to disseminate and disclose rigorous information on climate change.

Science Education and Public Awareness

Raising awareness of Climate Change at Basque Country Scale

BC3 Initiatives in collaboration with external organizations

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