BC3. Basque centre for climate change – Klima aldaketa ikergai

Basque Centre for Climate Change

We integrate the environmental, socioeconomic and ethical dimensions of climate change.

We provide knowledge, tools, new methodologies that we lead towards action in a collaborative framework.

We produce multi and trans-disciplinary knowledge relevant to decision making towards sustainable development at international level.   

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To steer climate change science towards the co-production of new knowledge and the co-design of policy solutions together with other stakeholders through a solid and transdisciplinary approach, with the ultimate goal to achieve sustainable development.


BC3 mission is to strategically foster co-production of knowledge relevant to decision making by integrating environmental, socioeconomic, and ethical dimensions of climate change.

Overall Objectives


Basque Centre for Climate Change will present the ARIES (Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services) modelling framework at the 10th World Conference of the Ecosystem Services Partnership (ESP)
  18 October 2019

Más de un centenar de los mejores expertos mundiales en biodiversidad se reúnen en Vitoria-Gasteiz para estudiar los valores que aporta la naturaleza
  18 October 2019

Marc Neumann, investigador Ikerbasque en BC3 ha participado en la jornada “Los ODS y el Cambio Climático, Retos Contemporáneos de la Ingeniería”
  17 October 2019

Technical Assistant for CORaHE project
  16 October 2019

This is the way nature benefits us and the way climate change will affect us
  11 October 2019

María Jose Sanz, Directora científica del BC3, Basque Centre of Climate Change, recibe la Distinción de la Generalitat Valenciana al mérito científico
  09 October 2019

Unai Pascual, investigador de BC3, presenta los resultados del informe del IPBES ante el Parlamento Vasco
  09 October 2019

BC3 joins Climate Emergency Declaration and demands strong, specific and urgent measures to accelerate ecological transition
  27 September 2019

Un artículo de BC3 determina que la reducción de contaminantes del aire en los árboles en el País Vasco y estima su valor económico
  26 September 2019

“Fortalecimiento de los sistemas de monitoreo, reporte y verificación nacionales hacia compromisos climáticos más ambiciosos” un webinar para facilitar el entendimiento del Paquete de Katowice sobre el Clima
  24 September 2019

Social Media


BC3-Basque Centre for Climate Change seeks to address a highly-qualified team of researchers, launching calls for senior and junior positions in our Job Offers and offering research opportunities for young students through Internships.

Journal Articles

Chiabai A., Quiroga S., Martinez-Juarez P., Suárez C., García de Jalón S., Taylor T. 2020. Exposure to green areas: Modelling health benefits in a context of study heterogeneity. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS. 167. DOI (10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106401).

Abadie L.M., Chamorro J.M. 2019. Physical adequacy of a power generation system: The case of Spain in the long term. ENERGY. 166. 637-652. DOI (10.1016/j.energy.2018.10.096).

Abadie L.M., Chiabai A., Neumann M.B. 2019. Stochastic diffusion models to describe the evolution of annual heatwave statistics: A three-factor model with risk calculations. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. 646. 670-684. DOI (10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.158).

Abadie L.M., Goicoechea N. 2019. Powering newly constructed vessels to comply with ECA regulations under fuel market prices uncertainty: Diesel or dual fuel engine?. TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT. 67. 433-448. DOI (10.1016/j.trd.2018.12.012).

Abadie, L.M., Galarraga, I., Markandya, A., Sainz de Murieta, E. 2019. Risk measures and the distribution of damage curves for 600 European coastal cities. Environmental Research Letters. 14. (6) DOI (10.1088/1748-9326/ab185c).

Albizua A., Corbera E., Pascual U. 2019. Farmers’ vulnerability to global change in Navarre, Spain: large-scale irrigation as maladaptation. Regional Environmental Change. 19. (4) 1147-1158. DOI (10.1007/s10113-019-01462-2).

Albizua A., Pascual U., Corbera E. 2019. Large-scale Irrigation Impacts Socio-cultural Values: An Example from Rural Navarre, Spain. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS. 159. 354-361. DOI (10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.12.017).

Arce M.I., Mendoza-Lera C., Almagro M., Catalán N., Romaní A.M., Martí E., Gómez R., Bernal S., Foulquier A., Mutz M., Marcé R., Zoppini A., Gionchetta G., Weigelhofer G., del Campo R., Robinson C.T., Gilmer A., Rulik M., Obrador B., Shumilova O., Zlatanovic S., Arnon S., Baldrian P., Singer G., Datry T., Skoulikidis N., Tietjen B., von Schiller D. 2019. A conceptual framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of dry riverbeds through the lens of soil science. EARTH-SCIENCE REVIEWS. 188. 441-453. DOI (10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.12.001).

Arto I., García-Muros X., Cazcarro I., González M., Markandya A., Hazra S. 2019. The socioeconomic future of deltas in a changing environment. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. 648. 1284-1296. DOI (10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.139).

Balbi S., Selomane O., Sitas N., Blanchard R., Kotzee I., O'Farrell P., Villa F. 2019. Human dependence on natural resources in rapidly urbanising South African regions. Environmental Research Letters. 14. (4) 44008-44008. DOI (10.1088/1748-9326/aafe43).


Arto, Iñaki., Dietzenbacher, Erik., Rueda Cantuche, Jose. 2019 Measuring bilateral trade in terms of value added. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-76-03846-7.

Pascual, U. (Lead author) and Palomo, I. (Author Fellow). 2019 In: S. Díaz, J. Settele, E. S. Brondizio E.S., H. T. Ngo, M. Guèze, J. Agard, A. Arneth, P. Balvanera, K. A. Brauman, S. H. M. Butchart, K. M. A. Chan, L. A. Garibaldi, K. Ichii, J. Liu, S. M. Subramanian, G. F. Midgley, P. Miloslavich, Z. Molnár, D. Obura, A. In: IPBES Special Report:"Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services". IPBES.

Roman, María Victoria., Rueda Cantuche, Jose.,De Amores Hernandez, Antonio., Arto, Iñaki., Perez, Miguel.,. 2019 Trade-SCAN 1.1 – A Tool for Trade Supply Chain Analysis. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union . ISBN 978-92-76-01963-3 .

Salotti, S.,Rocchi, P., Rueda-Cantuche, J., Arto, I. 2019 Macroeconomic effects of US tariff on steel and aluminium: who would pay the bill?. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-76-08299-6.

Sanz, M.J (Contributed as Coordinating Leading Author) and del Prado, A. ( Contributed as Leading Author). 2019 IPCC Special Report: "2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories". IPCC.

Sanz, M.J. (Participation in 4th Lead Authors Meeting as Review Editor of Chapter 1.). 2019 IPCC Special Report:"Climate Change and Land". IPCC.

Teodora., Lindner, Soeren., Arto Iñaki., Roman, María Victoria., Rueda Cantuche, Jose., Velazquez Afonso, Agustin., De Amores Hernandez, Antonio., Neuwahl, Frederik. 2019 World Input-Output Database Environmental Accounts. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-76-02068-4 .

Arto, I., Rueda-Cantuche, J.M., Cazcarro, I., Amores, A.F., Dietzenbacher, E. Román, M. V. and Kutlina-Dimitrova, Z. 2018 In: Arto, I., Rueda-Cantuche, J.M., Cazcarro, I., Amores, A.F., Dietzenbacher, E. Román, M. V. and Kutlina-Dimitrova, Z. In: EU exports to the World: Effects on Income. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-79-93280-9.

Arto, I., Rueda-Cantuche, J.M., Cazcarro, I., Amores, A.F., Dietzenbacher, E. Román, M. V. and Kutlina-Dimitrova, Z. 2018 In: Arto, I., Rueda-Cantuche, J.M., Cazcarro, I., Amores, A.F., Dietzenbacher, E. Román, M. V. and Kutlina-Dimitrova, Z. In: EU exports to the World: Effects on Employment. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-79-93284-7.

Huang, Y., Pascual, U. 2018 In: Huang, Y., Pascual, U. In: Aid effectiveness and Environmental Sustainability. 1st ed. Singapore. Springer Singapore. ISBN 978-981-10-5378-8.

Books chapters

A. Markandya and D. Pearce. 2019 Development, the Environment and the Social Rate of Discount. In: G. Atkinson and S. Fankhauser . In: Sustainability Economics: The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics. UK. Edward Elgar: UK. 896. ISBN 978-1-786439109.

Alevgul H. Sorman, Cristina Pizarro-Irizar, Xaquín García-Muros, Mikel González-Eguino, Iñaki Arto. 2019 Spain: On a rollercoaster of regulatory change: risks and uncertainties of renewable energy transitions . In: Alexandros Nikas, Susanne Hanger, Jenny Lieu. In: Case study narratives on risks and uncertainties associated with climate mitigation pathways. London. Routledge. 296. ISBN 9780429458781.

Arto, I., Cazcarro, I., Markandya, A., Hazra, S., Bhattacharya, R.N., Osei-Wusu Adjei, P. 2019 Delta Economics and Sustainability. In: Nicholls, R.N., Adger, W.N., Hutton, CW., Hanson, S.E. In: Deltas in the Anthropocene. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-030-23516-1.

Burgess P, Graves A, García de Jalón S, Palma J, Dupraz C, van Noordwijk M. 2019 Modelling agroforestry systems. In: Mosquera-Losada MR, Prabhu R . In: Agroforestry for Sustainable Agriculture. Burleigh Dodds Series in Agricultural Science (Book 55). 542. ISBN 978-1786762207.

Cazcarro I., Arto I. 2019 Water Footprint and Consumer Products. In: Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu . In: Environmental Water Footprints. Singapore. Springer. 55-84. ISBN 978-981-13-2507-6.

E. Barbier, A. Markandya and D. Pearce. 2019 Environmental Sustainability and Cost-Benefit Analysis. In: G. Atkinson and S. Fankhauser . In: Sustainability Economics: The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics. UK. Edward Elgar: UK. 896. ISBN 978-1-786439109.

Markandya, A . and Gonzalez-Eguino, M. 2019 Integrated Assessment for Identifying Climate Finance Needs for Loss and Damage: A Critical Review . In: Mechler, R., Bouwer, L.M., Schinko, Th., Surminski, S., Linnerooth-Bayer, J. In: Loss and Damage from Climate Change. 1st ed. . Springer International Publishing. 343-362. ISBN 978-3-319-72026-5.

Nicholls, R.J., Adger, W.N., Hutton, C.W., Hanson, S.E., Lázár, A.N., Vincent, K., Allan, A., Tompkins, E.L., Arto, I., Rahman, M.M., Hazra, S., Codjoe, S.N.A. 2019 Sustainable Deltas in the Anthropocene. In: Nicholls, R.N., Adger, W.N., Hutton, CW., Hanson, S.E. In: Deltas in the Anthropocene. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-030-23516-1.

Avila-Calero, S.,Sorman, A.H. 2018 Transición Energética (Energías Renovables). In: Giacomo D'Alisa, Federico Demaria y Giorgos Kallis (eds.). In: Decrecimiento. Vocabulario para una nueva era. Edición ampliada para Latinoamérica. México. ICARIA. ISBN 978-84-9888-866-9.

Bosello F, Iglesias A, Termansen M, Jeuken A, De Cian E, Chiabai A, Garrote L . 2018 Economy wide impacts of climate mitigation and adaptation strategies across European regions. In: Sanderson H, Hildén M, Russel D, Penha-Lopes G, Capriolo A . In: Adapting to Climate Change in Europe 1st Edition. Exploring Sustainable Pathways - From Local Measures to Wider Policies. 1st ed. Amsterdam. Elsevier. 347. ISBN 9780128498873.

Others publications

Proietti, S., Sessa, C., and Pesuit, M. (ISINNOVA), Standal, K. and Schoyen Jensen, E. (CICERO), Bartek-Lesi, M. and Selei, A. (REKK), McCoy, D. (GRI-LSE), Silvestri, A. (BC3). 2019. D6.3 Transition practice framework workshop report. Enable EU (Enabling Energy Union).

Brown, C., Kovacs, E.K., Zinngrebe, Y., Albizua, A., Galanaki, A., Grammatikopoulou, I., Herzon, I., Marquardt, D., McCracken, D., Olsson, J., Villamayor-Tomas, S. (2019). Understanding farmer uptake of measures that support biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Report prepared by an EKLIPSE Expert Working Group. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom

Giovanna Giuffrè, Carlo Sessa; (ISINNOVA); Thomas PellerinCarlin, Emilie Magdalinski (JDI); Mária Bartek-Lesi (REKK); Karina Standal and Hege Westskog (CICERO); Madeline Werthschulte (WWU), Alessandro Silvestri, Elena Lopez (BC3). 2019. D6.2 Transition Practice Backcasting Workshops’ Report. Enable EU (Enabling Energy Union).

I. Arto, I. Cazcarro, A. Markandya, S. Hazra , R. N. Bhattacharya. , P. Osei-Wusu, K. Vincent. 2019. Climate change and the economic future of deltas in Africa and Asia. CARIAA.

Matthew McCartney, Sébastien Foudi, Lal Muthuwatta, Aditya Sood, Gijs Simons, Johannes Hunink, Kim Vercruysse and Christine Omuombo. 2019. Quantifying theA Services of Natural and Built Infrastructure in the Context of Climate Change: The Case of the Tana River Basin, Kenya. International Water Management Institute (IWMI). IWMI Research Report 174. 61. DOI (10.5337/2019.200).

This document was prepared by a multi-institutional team comprised of:(1) BC3 Basque Center for Climate Change (Maria José Sanz),(2) FAO (Lucio Santos), and (3) The World Bank through PROFOR (coordination: Katharina Siegmann; authors: Gabriela Alonso, Ana. 2019. Mapping Katowice decisions related to NDCs – Infographics . This study was funded by the World Bank Program on Forests (PROFOR). This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank, FAO and the Basque Center for Climate Change. All omissions and inaccuracies in this document are the responsibility of the author.

Gonzalez-Eguino, M., Sampedro, J., Galarraga, I. Arto, I., Pizarro- Irizar, C., Sainz de Murieta, E., Sanz-Sanchez, M.J. BC3 contribution to the report: “2018. La transición energética del País Vasco hacia un modelo sostenible” (The energy transition of the Basque Country towards a sustainable model). Ararteko (Basque Ombudsman)

del Prado, A. 2018. Addressing climate change mitigation potential in agriculture. Thünen Working Papers. 103. 3-7.

Pascual. U., contribution to the document: “2018. Wellbeing: for whom and how? Ecosystems Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Policy and Practice Brief. March 2018”.

Foudi Sébastien, Ibon Galarrga, Elena Lopez. 2018. Are energy efficient appliances important for service providers?. conseed project.

Working Papers

[2018-02] Climate Change and Armed Conflicts African Observatory (CACAO): a georeferenced map of Africa Federica Cappelli, Caterina Conigliani, Valeria Costantini, Keti Lelo, Anil Markandya, Elena Paglialunga and Giorgia Sforna

[2018-01] Consumer purchases of energy-efficient cars: behavioural implications for policy Ibon Galarraga, Josu Lucas and Steffen Kallbekken

[2017-04] Cost-effectiveness and incidence of alternative mechanisms for financing renewables Xaquin Garcia-Muros, Christoph Böhringer and Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino

[2017-03] Traveling for happiness, moving to adapt: An agent-based perspective on population mobility Stefano Balbi

[2017-02] Drivers of climate change opinion Itxaso Ruiz, Sérgio Henrique Faria and Marc B. Neumann

[2017-01] Towards successful adaptation: a checklist for the development of climate change adaptation plans Marta Olazabal, Ibon Galarraga, James Ford, Alexandra Lesnikowski and Elisa Sainz de Murieta

[2016-05] The geographic distribution of the economic impact of climate finance María Victoria Román, Iñaki Arto and Alberto Ansuategi

[2016-04] Beyond Ecosystem Services: A Food Security Perspective Stefano Balbi and Ferdinando Villa

[2016-03] The role of flexible biofuel policies in meeting biofuel mandates Anil Markandya, Kishore Dhavala and Alessandro Palma

[2016-02] Industrial and terrestrial carbon leakage under climate policy fragmentation Mikel González-Eguino, Iñigo Capellán-Pérez, Iñaki Arto, Alberto Ansuategi and Anil Markandya

Policy Briefings

[PB2014/Special Issue-02] Warning to navigators: IPCC report on climate change mitigation Mikel González-Eguino and Iñaki Arto

[PB 2019 – 01] Planificación de la adaptación al cambio climático en las ciudades españolas: evaluando su sostenibilidad y efectividad a largo plazo Estibaliz Sanz, Marta Olazabal y Elisa Sainz de Murieta

[PB 2018 – 02] Land use mitigation: Can it realistically contribute to fill the gap to achieve the 1.5 and 2 ºc goals? María J. Sanz

[PB 2018 – 01] Are we on the right track? This is what we found when re-viewing climate policies in 885 European cities Marta Olazabal, Oliver Heidrich and Diana Reckien

[PB 2017-02_Special Issue] COP23: Technical profile with relevant political support Elisa Sainz de Murieta, Ibon Galarraga and Maria Jose Sanz

[PB 2014/ Special Issue-01] IPCC WGII Fifth Assessment Report (AR5): Expanding the solution space for adaptation Elisa Sainz de Murieta, Marc B Neumann and Anil Markandya

[PB 2013/ Special Issue-02] Breaking the 400 ppm barrier: Physical and Social implications of the recent CO2 rise Sérgio H. Faria, Joseph V. Spadaro and Anil Markandya

[PB 2013/ Special Issue-01] Warsaw Conference: “Small steps forward while awaiting major decisions at the 2015 Paris Conference” Galarraga.I and Román. M.V

[2017-04] Mecanismos para financiar la promoción de energías renovables. Impactos en los hogares y las industrias Joaquin Garcia-Muros y Mikel González-Eguino

[2017-03] The potential of behavioural change for achieving climate change mitigation targets in the European Union Dirk-Jan van de Ven, Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino and Iñaki Arto

Our Initiatives


Designed to disseminate and disclose rigorous information on climate change.

Science Education and Public Awareness

Raising awareness of Climate Change at Basque Country Scale

BC3 Initiatives in collaboration with external organizations

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